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HAIR AND SCALP

Sebaceous glands

The sebaceous glands are glands that secrete sebum, an oily, acidic substance with a pH of 3.5. They are connected laterally to the hair follicle. Sebaceous glands are found with a density of approximately 100/cm2 throughout all areas of the skin. In the human body, they are located across the entire surface of the skin, except for the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Sebaceous glands are also found in the external auditory meatus (ear canal) and on the eyelids, where they are long and flat. Here they are called tarsal or Meibomian glands.

Sebaceous glands and glands

Sebaceous glands are not distributed homogeneously over the body's surface. There is a particularly elevated number (400-900/cm2) in the anogenital and in the so-called seborrheic regions (scalp, face, chest and back). In other regions of the body (such as in the forearm area), there are fewer glands.

In some areas, like the corners and edges of the lips, the areola, the nipple, the anus, the vaginal libs and the glans (Tyson's glands), sebaceous glands open directly onto the skin's surface. They vary in size. They are larger in the pubic area, scrotum and nasal skin and are smaller at the level of the scalp.
Like the nail bed and sweat glands, sebaceous glands are characterized by a dense capillary network. The sebaceous gland alveoli and the sweat gland glomeruli are enveloped by perialveolar nerve plexi or periglomerular cells, composed of fibers that lose the myelin sheath near glandular adenomas. In the numerous sweat glands are numerous andrenergic endings at the level of the myoepithelial cells of the glomeruli. Through these, nerve impulses may cause rapid secretions. Secretion cells are instead surrounded by cholinergic fibers.

From a histological point of view, we can confirm that sebaceous glands are alveolar glands composed of branched tubes which give them their typical cluster shape.
Apocrine sweat secretion is intermittent, while sebum secretion is continuous. The secretion mechanism first leads to an accumulation of sebum in the secretion cells, which increase continuously in volume and size, until they burst. Precisely for this reason not just sebum but also the remaining cells that produced it spill into the hair follicle.
This necrosis is then compensated by the continuous production of new cell populations, coming from groups of undifferentiated cells that retained the ability to divide repeatedly. Once formed, the new cells detach from the tube walls and begin to produce sebum, migrating next to the follicle where they dismantle, leaving their contents.

Sebaceous glands and glands

Sebaceous gland function is influenced by several factors. Sebaceous gland secretion is controlled by steroid hormones circulating or produced locally by the pilosebaceous follicle, starting from building blocks coming from the gonads or the adrenal cortex (the most active of these is androstanediol). The sebaceous glands produce abundant sebum during fetal development (a fetus's vernix caseosa). They are active during the first months of life. They then pass to a phase of relative dormancy until 9-10 years of age, and reactivate during adrenarche. They then return to full activity during puberty due to small dermatological phenomena, the epitome of which is the phenomenon of common teenage acne. When there are no particular scalp problems, the production of sebum undergoes an abrupt reduction in women during menopause, while in men it diminishes only very slowly after 60 - 70 years of age. Sebum secretion is also influenced by genetic factors. Greasy skin is often a common problem among members of the same family. The most important factor regulating sebum secretion is the concentration of androgenic hormones, typical of men but also present in small quantities in women. In particular, at the level of the sebaceous glands, we find an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase, which converts delta 4-androstenedione into dihydrotestosterone, a metabolite with the ability to notably increase sebum secretion.

Sebum also goes into the composition of hydrolipidic film. This oily mass also contributes to one’s characteristic and personal body odor, to the extent that lipid composition differs slightly from individual to individual.
Sebaceous gland cells are enzyme rich and contain glycogen. The sebum that comes out and accumulates on the skin is composed as follows: triglycerides 30-42%, wax 20-25%, free fatty acids 15-25%, squalene 9-12%, branched hydrocarbons 4-8%, esterified cholesterol 2-3%, free cholesterol 1-1.5% and other substances (such as monoglycerides, glycerol, etc.) 3-5%.

After being produced, the sebum reaches the surface through gland orifices, hair follicles and wedges into spaces of the disjointed corneum layer, also layering itself onto hair. Thus, it mixes with lipids from the skin and with the aqueous component of perspiration and sweat, forming a thin superficial emulsion called cutaneous hydrolipidic film.
Sebum has two main functions. The first is to contribute through sweat to the formation of the hydrolipidic film, an emulsion of water/oil that protects the skin from chemical (detergents, solvents) and bacterial aggressors. The second is to lubricate and waterproof the external surface of the hair as it grows.
The sebaceous gland duct opens into the upper part of the follicle in order to lubricate the hair before it appears on the skin’s surface.

In normal conditions, total sebum production on the scalp is 650 - 700 mg every 24 hours. After removal via the use of soap, the hydrolipidic film (water/oil emulsion formed by a mixture of sebum with water from sweat) reforms in a relatively short amount of time (3 - 6 hours) but the sebaceous gland does not seem to be able to increase its activity compared to the base values for frequent washes. Sebum is unable to remove itself on its own from the hair shaft. The fact that hair can rapidly “get greasy” again after a wash is due to the reduction of superficial tension between the “keratin shingles” of the cuticle, associated with the continuous rubbing between hair. The speed of sebum migration increases if hair is continuously touched by hands or brushed. Moreover, in individuals with hair that gets particularly greasy in a short amount of time, sebum is more fluid and therefore has a higher migratory capacity.

In individuals with seborrhea, the abundance of sebum causes aesthetic issues due to the easy adhesion of environmental dust, keratin residue and waste substances carried by sweat. All too often these problems are accentuated by the effects of applying cosmetics to the hair.

Scientific collaboration between Professor Marco Toscani and Dr. Pasquale Fino, Chair of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Umberto I Health Center – “Sapienza” University of Rome.

Consent for marketing purposes
I, the undersigned, hereby give my consent to the processing and communication of my personal data so as to receive newsletters, commercial communications and/or advertising material via e-mail, post, text message and/or telephone regarding products or services provided by the Data Controller as well as the measurement of the degree of satisfaction relating to the quality of said services. The provision of such consent is optional

PRIVACY POLICY STATEMENT (Art. 13 of EU Regulation n. 2016/679 regarding personal data processing)

ADVIHAIR S.R.L., VAT N° 11495171008, with its offices at Via Benini n. 11 - 40069 Zola Predosa (Bologna, Italy), (hereinafter referred to as the, "Data Controller"), in its capacity as Data Controller, hereby informs you, in accordance with Art. 13 of EU Regulation n. 679/2016 (hereinafter referred to as, "GDPR") that your personal data (provided at the moment of subscription, by means of which business relationships deriving from the existing contract are established) shall be processed in compliance with the methods and for the purposes specified below. In accordance with the provisions of both the GDPR, Italian Legislative Decree n. 196/2003 and any subsequent amendments (hereinafter referred to as the "Privacy Code"), the processing operations carried out by the Data Controller, shall be based on principles of correctness, lawfulness and transparency and they shall be carried with the aim of complying with the principles of relevance, completeness, non-excessiveness while also safeguarding confidentiality.

The scope of data processing

Such data shall be processed, also by using IT and telematic procedures, with the acquisition, where necessary, of images, in accordance with the abovementioned legislation as well as any foreseen confidentiality obligations. More specifically, the personal data shall be processed by the centre, that will carry out all the necessary, individual processing operations ? collection, registration, organisation, storing, processing, modification, extraction, etc. as well as any other operation deemed useful with regards to the provision of the services requested.

Data processing purposes, Nature of data provision and consequences arising from the refusal to provide the requested data

1. Primarily, personal data shall be processed exclusively for purposes closely linked and instrumental to the fulfilment of contractual obligations to which you are party and that constitute the legal basis for the data processing itself in accordance with Art. 13, paragraph 1, letter c) of the GDPR. Such purposes particularly include:
- The conclusion of contracts for services and products provided by the Data Controller;
- The conclusion of contracts for services and products provided by the Supplier;
- Participation in presentation/courses/demonstration activities;
- The fulfilment of precontractual, contractual, administrative, and tax obligations arising from the existing business relationship established with you (requirements regarding operational, organisational, management, tax, administrative, insurance and accounting activities relating to the contractual and/or precontractual business relationship established);
- The fulfilment of obligations foreseen by law, by regulations, community legislation or by an order from a legal Authority (for example, with regards to anti-money laundering);
- The exercising of the Data Controller's rights, for example, with regards to the right to defence before a court. The processing of such data shall be carried out without the need for your express consent (Art. 6 letters b), c) of the GDPR) and the provision of such data is deemed as mandatory. In the absence of such provision, we cannot guarantee the establishment and execution of contractual relations with the Data Controller.
2. Secondarily, personal data may be processed only after obtaining your specific and explicit consent (Art. 7 of the GDPR) for the following purposes:
a) Marketing: to send you newsletters, commercial communications and/or advertising material via e-mail, post, text message and/or telephone, regarding products or services provided by the Data Controller as well as the measurement of the degree of satisfaction relating to the quality of said services.
b) The taking and use of portraits, photographic images and videos: the use and publication of portraits in photos and/videos that shall be taken, on the Data Controller's website and on its social network profile pages. For this purpose, the Data Controller hereby guarantees the fullest respect for rights relating to the honour and reputation of such data. The posing and use of the images are understood to be completely free of charge. The giving of one's consent with regards to Data Processing for Marketing purposes as well as for the use of the portrait, photographic image and video, for the abovementioned purposes and methods, is absolutely facultative and optional (and, in any case, such consent can be revoked without any formal procedure, also following the provision of services) and failure to provide such data shall not lead to any interference and/or consequences with regards to the abovementioned business relationship. In any case, also when the consent to authorise the Data Controller to carry out all the aforementioned operations has already been given, you shall be entitled to revoke such at any time whatsoever, by sending a registered letter regarding your "de-listing" and/or "image deletion" requests to the Data Controller's address as specified below. Following the receipt of such request, the Data Controller shall promptly remove and delete the relevant data from the databases used for Data processing for Marketing purposes and/or the use of the portrait, photographic image and video. The mere receipt of the de-listing request shall automatically be considered as a confirmation that such deletion process has been carried out.

Data Processing Methods

Data processing shall be carried out both manually (e.g. the collection of paper forms) and electronically or in any case, with the aid of appropriate electronic, IT and telematic tools so as to guarantee the security and confidentiality of the data itself, in accordance with what is stated in both Art. 32 of the GDPR and the Privacy Code. In any case, during the performance of data processing operations, all the necessary technical, IT, organisational, logistic measures and safety procedures shall be adopted, in order that the minimum level of protection of the data foreseen by law shall be guaranteed.

Duration of data processing

The Data Controller shall process the personal data for the necessary time so as to fulfil the aforementioned purposes and, in any case, for no longer than 10 years after the business relationship has ended, for the primary purposes and for no longer than 2 years after the need for data processing for Marketing Purposes has ended. The images shall be kept indefinitely and stored in the databases so as to have a historical memory of the events. Anyhow, a periodic verification is carried out relating to the obsolescence of the data stored in relation to the purposes for which they had been collected.

Categories of Individuals to whom the data may be communicated:

Your personal data may be communicated:
- To the Data Controller's employees in their capacity as persons in charge of data processing and/or internal data processors and/or system administrators;
- To self-employed professionals (lawyers, consultants, etc.), administrative and tax consultants for the necessary legal fulfilments, companies that carry out outsourcing activities on behalf of the Data Controller, in their capacity as appointed external Data Processors.
- To supervisory bodies, judicial authorities, insurance companies for the provision of insurance services, as well as those individuals to whom the communication of data is compulsory by law in order to carry out said purposes.
- For defensive investigations or to assert or defend one's rights before judicial courts, as long as it exclusively refers and is closely linked to such purpose.

Transfer of personal data

The Data Controller shall not transfer your personal data to a third-party country or to an international organisation.

Rights of the Data Subject

In your capacity as a data subject, you have rights in accordance with Art. 15 of the GDPR and more specifically, the right to obtain the confirmation from the Data Controller as whether or not personal data relating to you is being processed and, in which case, to obtain access to such personal data as well as the following information: a) the purpose of the processing; b) the categories of the personal data in question; c) recipients or categories of recipients to whom personal data has been or shall be communicated, in particular if these refer to third-party countries or international organisations; d) when possible, the foreseen period of retention of the personal data or, if this is not possible, the criteria used to determine such period; e) the right to ask the Data Controller to rectify or delete your personal data or the restriction of the processing of the personal data relating to you or to oppose to its processing; f) the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority; g) if such data has not been provided by the data subject himself/herself, all the information available regarding its origin; h) the existence of an automated decision-making process, including profiling operations and, at least in such cases, significant information regarding the logic used, as well as the importance and the foreseen consequences of such processing for the data subject. Where applicable, you also have the faculty to exercise the rights pursuant to Articles 16-21 of the GDPR (the right to rectification, the right to be forgotten, the right to restriction of processing, the right to data portability and the right to object), as well as the right to lodge a complaint with the Italian Anti-trust Authority by following the procedures and indications published on said Authority's official website: www.garanteprivacy.it or alternatively, alternatively the right to lodge a complaint before a competent judicial authority.

Methods of exercising rights

You shall be able to exercise your rights at any time whatsoever by sending a registered letter to the Data Controller to such effect.

Data Controller

The Data Controller of the personal data you provided is: ADVIHAIR S.R.L., VAT N° 11495171008, with its offices at Via Benini n. 11 - 40069 Zola Predosa (Bologna, Italy) in the person of its Legal Representative. Articles from 15 to 22 of the GDPR are available by clicking on this link: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32016R0679&from=IT

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