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Scientific Area

HAIR AND SCALP

Structure and chemical composition of the scalp

The scalp is an ultra-specialized area of the skin, where hair is anchored. Like other hair, also the hair on the scalp originates from a hair follicle, called a bulb.

Immagini macro del cuoio capelluto
Immagini micro del cuoio capelluto

Since it is skin (like all other areas of the body), the scalp is susceptible to problems such as imbalances, anomalies, disorders or actual illnesses. The scalp is responsible for protecting the brain, not just through the presence of hair, but also through thermoregulation of the entire head, filtering the sun’s rays and blocking excessive heat dispersion in cold environments.
The scalp is tightly bound to the galea aponeurotica, the aponeurosis that directly covers the skull, with the interposition of weak connective tissue.

The scalp is composed of: a superficial epidermis, with little pigment and well-protected from light by the hair, and a deeper area, the dermis, in which hair bulbs are densely packed.
Capillaries cross the scalp and bring nourishment to the hair through the blood. Other important functions are carried out by sebaceous glands and sweat glands that, with sebum and sweat, ensure protection and lubrification of both the scalp and hair.
Each bulb corresponds to the outlet of a sebaceous gland. A particular characteristic of the hair derives from the extent of sebaceous gland activity, and related hair problems may depend on this factor too. If the sebaceous glands are very active and secrete a lot of sebum, the hair will appear greasy, covering itself easily in the greasy secretion. If, on the other hand, the activity is reduced and produces a small quantity of sebum, the hair will be dry.
The skin or dermis is composed of two layers, a superficial layer, called the epidermis, and a deeper layer, called the dermis, under which the hypodermis or subcutaneous adipose tissue is located.
The epidermis is separate from the dermis of the basement membrane.

The epidermis or epithelial tissue is composed of 4 different types of cells, the most important of which, composed of keratinocytes, is distributed across many overlapping rows of cells divided into 5 layers: the basal layer, the spinous layer, the granular layer, the translucent layer (present only on the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot) and lastly the cornified layer. Keratinocytes are formed and reproduced in the deepest part (the basal layer), and from here, following the aging process, slowly climb towards the surface (in about 28 days), producing within them a protein called keratin, which has a particular resistance to external aggression (soap, oils, solvents, heat and cold, visible and ultraviolet radiation, germs, mold and pathogens, etc...).

The detachment of the now-dead cells from the surface is usually invisible. If, instead, for some reason, due to particular scalp problems, cellular masses form (hundreds or thousands of elements), the detachment becomes visible in the form of flakes (dandruff).
The basal layer is the only one that needs nourishment, which it receives from the underlying dermis. The epidermis is devoid of arterial or venous circulation. The basement membrane is a complex structure with an undulated shape that is responsible for both anchoring the epidermis to the dermis and for allowing and regulating the exchange of substances (nutrients and waste) between the epidermis and the dermis. In the dermis (connective tissue) the cells are scarcer and divided into various types: among these we can note the fibroblasts, mastocytes and macrophages. The most important are fibroblasts, that produce both the “fundamental” gelatinous substance, composed mostly of water, salt, sugar and protein, and various types of fibers (reticular, collagen and elastic), which take on the role of providing support, consistency and elasticity to the tissue itself. The dermis is full of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, fibers and nerve endings. Finally, the hypodermis (subcutaneous adipose tissue) is composed mainly of interwoven fibrous bands (a direct continuation of those found in the dermis) that outline a series of spaces, called adipocytes, occupied by adipose cells. In the hypodermis there are fewer cells and nerve endings, while blood supply is more abundant. Under the hypodermis are bands of muscular tissue with the correspondent muscles.

Scientific collaboration between Professor Marco Toscani and Dr. Pasquale Fino, Chair of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Umberto I Health Center – “Sapienza” University of Rome.

Consent for marketing purposes
I, the undersigned, hereby give my consent to the processing and communication of my personal data so as to receive newsletters, commercial communications and/or advertising material via e-mail, post, text message and/or telephone regarding products or services provided by the Data Controller as well as the measurement of the degree of satisfaction relating to the quality of said services. The provision of such consent is optional

PRIVACY POLICY STATEMENT (Art. 13 of EU Regulation n. 2016/679 regarding personal data processing)

ADVIHAIR S.R.L., VAT N° 11495171008, with its offices at Via Benini n. 11 - 40069 Zola Predosa (Bologna, Italy), (hereinafter referred to as the, "Data Controller"), in its capacity as Data Controller, hereby informs you, in accordance with Art. 13 of EU Regulation n. 679/2016 (hereinafter referred to as, "GDPR") that your personal data (provided at the moment of subscription, by means of which business relationships deriving from the existing contract are established) shall be processed in compliance with the methods and for the purposes specified below. In accordance with the provisions of both the GDPR, Italian Legislative Decree n. 196/2003 and any subsequent amendments (hereinafter referred to as the "Privacy Code"), the processing operations carried out by the Data Controller, shall be based on principles of correctness, lawfulness and transparency and they shall be carried with the aim of complying with the principles of relevance, completeness, non-excessiveness while also safeguarding confidentiality.

The scope of data processing

Such data shall be processed, also by using IT and telematic procedures, with the acquisition, where necessary, of images, in accordance with the abovementioned legislation as well as any foreseen confidentiality obligations. More specifically, the personal data shall be processed by the centre, that will carry out all the necessary, individual processing operations ? collection, registration, organisation, storing, processing, modification, extraction, etc. as well as any other operation deemed useful with regards to the provision of the services requested.

Data processing purposes, Nature of data provision and consequences arising from the refusal to provide the requested data

1. Primarily, personal data shall be processed exclusively for purposes closely linked and instrumental to the fulfilment of contractual obligations to which you are party and that constitute the legal basis for the data processing itself in accordance with Art. 13, paragraph 1, letter c) of the GDPR. Such purposes particularly include:
- The conclusion of contracts for services and products provided by the Data Controller;
- The conclusion of contracts for services and products provided by the Supplier;
- Participation in presentation/courses/demonstration activities;
- The fulfilment of precontractual, contractual, administrative, and tax obligations arising from the existing business relationship established with you (requirements regarding operational, organisational, management, tax, administrative, insurance and accounting activities relating to the contractual and/or precontractual business relationship established);
- The fulfilment of obligations foreseen by law, by regulations, community legislation or by an order from a legal Authority (for example, with regards to anti-money laundering);
- The exercising of the Data Controller's rights, for example, with regards to the right to defence before a court. The processing of such data shall be carried out without the need for your express consent (Art. 6 letters b), c) of the GDPR) and the provision of such data is deemed as mandatory. In the absence of such provision, we cannot guarantee the establishment and execution of contractual relations with the Data Controller.
2. Secondarily, personal data may be processed only after obtaining your specific and explicit consent (Art. 7 of the GDPR) for the following purposes:
a) Marketing: to send you newsletters, commercial communications and/or advertising material via e-mail, post, text message and/or telephone, regarding products or services provided by the Data Controller as well as the measurement of the degree of satisfaction relating to the quality of said services.
b) The taking and use of portraits, photographic images and videos: the use and publication of portraits in photos and/videos that shall be taken, on the Data Controller's website and on its social network profile pages. For this purpose, the Data Controller hereby guarantees the fullest respect for rights relating to the honour and reputation of such data. The posing and use of the images are understood to be completely free of charge. The giving of one's consent with regards to Data Processing for Marketing purposes as well as for the use of the portrait, photographic image and video, for the abovementioned purposes and methods, is absolutely facultative and optional (and, in any case, such consent can be revoked without any formal procedure, also following the provision of services) and failure to provide such data shall not lead to any interference and/or consequences with regards to the abovementioned business relationship. In any case, also when the consent to authorise the Data Controller to carry out all the aforementioned operations has already been given, you shall be entitled to revoke such at any time whatsoever, by sending a registered letter regarding your "de-listing" and/or "image deletion" requests to the Data Controller's address as specified below. Following the receipt of such request, the Data Controller shall promptly remove and delete the relevant data from the databases used for Data processing for Marketing purposes and/or the use of the portrait, photographic image and video. The mere receipt of the de-listing request shall automatically be considered as a confirmation that such deletion process has been carried out.

Data Processing Methods

Data processing shall be carried out both manually (e.g. the collection of paper forms) and electronically or in any case, with the aid of appropriate electronic, IT and telematic tools so as to guarantee the security and confidentiality of the data itself, in accordance with what is stated in both Art. 32 of the GDPR and the Privacy Code. In any case, during the performance of data processing operations, all the necessary technical, IT, organisational, logistic measures and safety procedures shall be adopted, in order that the minimum level of protection of the data foreseen by law shall be guaranteed.

Duration of data processing

The Data Controller shall process the personal data for the necessary time so as to fulfil the aforementioned purposes and, in any case, for no longer than 10 years after the business relationship has ended, for the primary purposes and for no longer than 2 years after the need for data processing for Marketing Purposes has ended. The images shall be kept indefinitely and stored in the databases so as to have a historical memory of the events. Anyhow, a periodic verification is carried out relating to the obsolescence of the data stored in relation to the purposes for which they had been collected.

Categories of Individuals to whom the data may be communicated:

Your personal data may be communicated:
- To the Data Controller's employees in their capacity as persons in charge of data processing and/or internal data processors and/or system administrators;
- To self-employed professionals (lawyers, consultants, etc.), administrative and tax consultants for the necessary legal fulfilments, companies that carry out outsourcing activities on behalf of the Data Controller, in their capacity as appointed external Data Processors.
- To supervisory bodies, judicial authorities, insurance companies for the provision of insurance services, as well as those individuals to whom the communication of data is compulsory by law in order to carry out said purposes.
- For defensive investigations or to assert or defend one's rights before judicial courts, as long as it exclusively refers and is closely linked to such purpose.

Transfer of personal data

The Data Controller shall not transfer your personal data to a third-party country or to an international organisation.

Rights of the Data Subject

In your capacity as a data subject, you have rights in accordance with Art. 15 of the GDPR and more specifically, the right to obtain the confirmation from the Data Controller as whether or not personal data relating to you is being processed and, in which case, to obtain access to such personal data as well as the following information: a) the purpose of the processing; b) the categories of the personal data in question; c) recipients or categories of recipients to whom personal data has been or shall be communicated, in particular if these refer to third-party countries or international organisations; d) when possible, the foreseen period of retention of the personal data or, if this is not possible, the criteria used to determine such period; e) the right to ask the Data Controller to rectify or delete your personal data or the restriction of the processing of the personal data relating to you or to oppose to its processing; f) the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority; g) if such data has not been provided by the data subject himself/herself, all the information available regarding its origin; h) the existence of an automated decision-making process, including profiling operations and, at least in such cases, significant information regarding the logic used, as well as the importance and the foreseen consequences of such processing for the data subject. Where applicable, you also have the faculty to exercise the rights pursuant to Articles 16-21 of the GDPR (the right to rectification, the right to be forgotten, the right to restriction of processing, the right to data portability and the right to object), as well as the right to lodge a complaint with the Italian Anti-trust Authority by following the procedures and indications published on said Authority's official website: www.garanteprivacy.it or alternatively, alternatively the right to lodge a complaint before a competent judicial authority.

Methods of exercising rights

You shall be able to exercise your rights at any time whatsoever by sending a registered letter to the Data Controller to such effect.

Data Controller

The Data Controller of the personal data you provided is: ADVIHAIR S.R.L., VAT N° 11495171008, with its offices at Via Benini n. 11 - 40069 Zola Predosa (Bologna, Italy) in the person of its Legal Representative. Articles from 15 to 22 of the GDPR are available by clicking on this link: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32016R0679&from=IT

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